Jul 29, 2017

Submerged Madenur dam in Linganamakki backwaters

Until the day I received an email from my acquaintance Jayachanda N S from Shimoga, I'd never heard of a dam submerged in a reservoir of another dam. The email was an invitation to a trip to this submerged dam of Madenur. Unfortunately, I could not make it to the trip but Jayachanda shared some photos of the place. June end I chatted with Jayachanda on phone and requested his permission to post his pictures here.. yes.

Madenur Dam, also known as Hirebhaskar dam was built across river Sharavathi between 1939 and 1948. The dam was inaugurated in 1949 and remained functional until the much larger Linganmakki Dam came into existnce in mid 1960s. Now Madenur Dam remains submerged in the waters of Linganmakki reservoir only to surface when the water level dips during peak summer month of May. With some more research, I found Rajesh Naik's post on dreamroutes.org and learnt how the dam functioned.

The construction of Madenur dam was supervised by a civil engineer names Ganesh Iyer from the Old Mysore region. He was an expert in construction of structures based on the siphon system. The 1150' (350 meter) dam has 11 siphons, each 18' wide x 58' high. The mechanism of siphon system enables water to flow out of the reservoir automatically when it reaches the optimum level. Besides the siphons, there are 3 crest gates

Here we go- the wonderful Madenur Dam which has survived 50 years of remaining submerged. In this view the river flows from left to right. The first siphon from the east end.

The siphon top. One can walk on the 2' wide bridges connecting the siphons but it can be very risky.

The stairway connecting the dam crest to the siphon platform.

The pillars around siphons. Each siphon has an outer ring of 12 pillars. The inner wall is the well through which water flows out.

The cement structure has survived the test of time and water. Appreciate the project team's work.

View of the dam from the reservoir.

The domes of the siphon; whoever designed this structure had a sense of aesthetics too.


Finally, the twelve siphons in a single frame.
The dam and siphons as viewed from air. Coutesy- Google Maps via Wikimapia.org.

The other side of the dam.. i.e. the tailrace. It is said there's an ancient temple submerged close to this dam.

Jayachanda locates a herostone.. some where on the reservoir bed.

My thanks to Jayachanda for these lovely snaps. Hopefully, one day I shall make it to this place and the nearby forts of Nagara and Kaveledurga.

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Jul 22, 2017

What to see in Bagalkot district?

Bagalkot district came into being in 1997, it was part of Bijapur district until then. It consists of six taluqas namely Badami, Bagalkote, Bilagi, Hunagund, Jamakhandi and Mudhol. Bagalkote literally means 'door fort'. However, stone inscriptions identify Bagadige as the ancient name of Bagalkote. Three major rivers - Ghataprabha, Malaprabha and Krishna flow through the district. While Ghataprabha merges into Krishna near Alamatti village, Malaprabha merges into Krishna at Koodalasangama - the place where Jagatjyoti Basaveshwara attained Samadhi. The original Bagalkot town remains in the waters of Almatti dam reservoir; a new city was formed to accommodate the population.

Bagalkot district's economy is mostly driven by agriculture and sugar mills. In the past decade or so, wind power generation is a growing industry. Agriculturists mainly grow cash crops like sugarcane, cotton, maize, sunflower and pulses. Farmers depending on rains grow traditional crops like jowar and togari. On the horticulture side, grape vines are popular.

Bagalakote district was the seat of Chalukyan empire and holds some of the most important historical monuments of those times. The Greek astronomer Ptolemy previously identified many towns in the district of Bagalkote. Pattadakal was referred to as Petrigal, while Badami was known as Badiamaioi. For a tourist with passion for history, Bagalkote district is an ideal destination. Besides the popular spots like Aihole, Pattadakal and Badami, one gets to see the rock hills with amazing rock formations, prehistoric caves, rock paintings, megalithic tombs. rock-cut temples, many more Chalukyan temples, forts, a king's palace and an elephant tomb also. One can easily spend weeks touring this little district.

Here's what you can see. In the pictures below, the captions go clock-wise, starting at north-west.

Durga Temple, Basaveshwara Aikya Mantapa at Kudala Sangama
Rock-cut temple at Badami, Kalyani at Banashankari

Rock formation at Kutkankeri, Umbrella tree near Aihole
Sidlapadi Cave, Megalithic tomb of Bachingudda

Temple at Pattadakal, Natural spring at Mahaloota,
Rock-cut Jain Basadi at Aihole, Rock paintings near Badami

Buddhist Chaitya at Aihole, Rock-cut temple at Badami,
Southern fort at Badami, Fort at Aihole

Malgitti Shivalaya at Badami, Ramlingeshwar temple near Aihole,
Ravalpadi at Aihole, Maliyavvana Gudi near Aihole

Bhootnath group of temples at Badami, Galaganatha Temple Complex.
Elephant tomb at Galgali, Naganatha temple at Naganathakolla

Here's a list of places to see-
  • Badami - the capital of Chalukya Empire; formerly known as Vatapi. The historic town is situated next to the rock hill known locally as Hiregudda. In fact the town itself has roots in the hill. Badami is known for its cave temples, fort, a water tank and ancient temples. The cave temples were created by Buddhist and Jaina monks. Temples like Malgitti Shivalaya, Bhootnath temple complex, Dattatreya temple, Agasthya Theertha were created by the Chalukyan kings. Badami fort was originally built by Chalukyas was later improvised by Hyder and Tipu. The government museum here has an interesting collection of ancient sculptures including the rare Lajja Gowri. Close to the museum, on the hill's rocks are inscriptions from Chalukyan times such as Kappe Arabhatta Lipi. Also above the cave temples, on the hill, is another rock-cut shrine with images of Suryanarayana and an inscription in Devnagari script. 
  • Banashankari - about 4 kilometers south of Badami is this ancient shrine dedicated to Shakambari. The temple was built during Chalukyan times has a Pushkarni (water tank with shelter around it ) and Deepa Mantapa (a lamp tower). The temple is popular and holds an annual fair during the month of January on a full moon day. The temple's wooden chariot with stone wheels is atleast 165 years old.
  • Guddada Ranganathaswami Temple - this is another ancient temple situated in a cleft in the rock hill. The spot is between Badami and Banashankari. Close to it on a rick face is a prehistoric rock painting.
  • Naganatha temple - a Chalukyan temple situated in a cleft of Hiregudda. The spot is popularly known as Naganathakolla. The temple is simple yet beautiful and the spot is absolutely peaceful.
  • Sidlapadi Cave - a natural cave with two open ends. The spot is situated on a remote edge of Hiregudda plateau. Its is small group of caves huddled together forming a comfortable place for human settlement. In fact this spot is a confirmed prehistoric site. In the cave's roof is an opening which is said have caused when lightening struck.
  • Kutkankeri - group of hills is a confirmed prehistoric site. The hill known for its rick formations, rock-shelters, rock paintings depicting animals and human forms and ancient shrines. One of the largest paintings here depicts Indian striped hyena. Also, on this hill is a cavern which is said to be occupied by hyenas. Once can easily spend half day exploring the hill.
  • Mahakoota - is a group of small temples around a natural spring built during Chalukyan times. The temples are dedicated to Shivalinga and Nandi. The pond of clear spring water is said to have medicinal properties. This place is about 15 kms from Badami.
  • Halae Mahakoota - is the older version of Mahakoota; it is situated nearby Mahakoota.
  • Shivayogi Mandira - is a Lingayath monastery situated on the left bank of river Malaprabha. The monastery is known for its collection of rare Talegari Lipi (ancient leaf inscriptions).
  • Bachingudda - a prehistoric site on the left bank of river Malaprabha. The site is situated on a hillock where remains of an temple was discovered. Also, close to the hill, on the plains are two ancient megalithic tombs. The tombs are located right besides Pattadakal-Badami road, about 2 kilometers from Pattadakal.
  • Huligyammana Kolla - is an ancient shrine in a rock shelter. One can see small temples of Chalukyan time.
  • Pattadakal - is one among the fifteen World Heritage Sites of India. While Aihole is considered as school of temple building, Pattadakal is considered as the college. It is said that ...Chalukyan kings would come here for Pattabhisheka (coronation) hence the name Pattadakal. The place is situated on the left bank of Malaprabha, the river flows in south-north direction here.
  • Siddana Kolla - is an ancient shrine in a rock cleft. Here is a west-facing temple dedicated to Shiva Linga. The spot is situated in the path of a stream which flowed through out the year centuries ago. However, in the present day, the stream is alive only during rainy season.
  • Aihole - probably one of the longest inhabited place in Karnataka. Situated on the right bank of river Malaprabha, the village has more than 100 temples of various sizes and forms. Aihole is said to be the place where temple building technology evolved, hence its is called as the cradle of temple building. The most popular being the Durga Temple Complex; within this complex are temples of various designs. The other spots are Ravanapadi rock-cut temple, Jyotirlinga temple complex, Mallikarjuna temple complex, Buddhist Charityalaya, Meguti temple,Boyar Gudi, Ancient quarry site, Rock-cut Jain Basadi, Prehistroic burial chambers, Galaganatha temple complex and Ramlingeshwara temple complex. The place has so much to see, one can easily spend two days here.
  • Akkargal fort - is a small fort situated on a rocky hillock on the left bank of river Malaprabha, in between Pattadakal and Aihole. Close to this fort is a small temple dedicate to Durgadevi, but locally known as Maliyavvana Gudi.
  • Shankarlingeshwara temple at Motar Maradi - is an unusual structure built into small rock formation. Also close by two smaller temples, all built during Chalukyan times. It seems these temples were experiments in temple construction technology.
  • Maliyavvana Gudi - is a small but beautiful temple situated besides a pond. The temple seems to be a scale model before commencing the actual project. The temple is dedicated to Durgadevi. The idol depicts an ideal female form.. slender body with narrow waist, large breasts and log limbs. The name Maliyavva derives from the Kannada word.. Mali for breasts.
  • Kelur fort - a small fort on a hillock probably built by Maratha rulers. Probably, 500 years old, the fort's bastions have withstood the test of time.
  • Chikanal fort - a small fort on a hillock near Gudur. This is in complete ruins and neglected.
  • Gudur fort - a small fort on a rocky hillock close to Chikanal. In elevation, this fort is higher and part of the long hill range.
  • Arshibeedu temples - these temples are about 4 kms from Gudur on Gudur-Hanamasagar road; situated on slopes of a hillock. The temples are built during Chalukyan king These temples were built by King Adivikramaditya of Kalyana Chalukya dynasty. During his reign Arshibidu was a vice-capital known by the name Vikramapura.
  • Kudala Sangama - The confluence of Krishna and Malaprabha. At this spot is Sangameshwara temple which was often visited by the Lingayath Saint Basaveshwara. The Aikya Mantapa where Basaveshwara attains Samadhi is situated at the confluence is now enclosed in a concrete well to prevent it from submerging in the waters of Basava Sagar.
  • Bilagi - or Bilgi is a religious spot with a long history. It is situated on Bijapur-Bagalkot road. Here is a pond called Arettina Bavi (six bullock well) which has a shrine inside dedicated to Mahadeva. Also in the well are stone inscriptions in Kannada, Marathi and Persian. it is said the well was built in the year 1708 CE.
  • Elephant Tomb, Galgali - Galgali is a village situated on the banks of river Krishna. In the village is a tomb of an elephant belonging to Aurangzeb, the Mughal emperor.
  • Belur fort - a fort on a hillock near Banashankari. This is one of the seven hill forts built by Maratha rulers. It is said that fire signals were used to convey messages between the forts.
  • Rameshwara temple, Jamkhandi - commonly known as Ramtheerth is situated on Jamkhandi hill. It is said that Rama, Sita and Laxmana had visited this place during their Vanavasa. The temple is said to be built during Chalukyan times.
  • Rajwade Patawardhan Palace, Jamkhandi - a palace on the hill close to the Rameshwara Temple. It was built by Ramchandrarao Gopalrao Patwardhan during the second half of XIX Century. The palace has amenities like electric lift, swimming pool and also had a theater with a stage. None of the family members reside here, the palace is an theater is in ruins. 
Bagalkot and Koppal districts are like twin brothers, equally rich in historic and prehistoric spots. One can spend months here and yet miss something.
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Jul 15, 2017

Swayambhu Devalayam, Warangal fort

March 17, 2017

This temple is situated right next to the Ekasila Park and a stone's throw from the Southern Torana. The temple situated below the road below the road level..

Swayambhu Shambu Lingeshwara Swamy Devalaya is one of the ancient Shiva temples. The temple deity is said to be self created. This temple was important for Kakatiya dynasty and it is said that Kakatiya King Prataparudra visited this temple everyday.

In plan, the temple seems to be star-shaped. It has a Mukha Mantapa (a porch) which leads into the temple assembly hall- Sabha Mantapa. The temple builders have made Sukhnasi (a seating platform) right from the porch and around the assembly hall. Unfortunately, I did not venture into the temple, so I can't tell much about the interior. The Shikhara (tower) over the Garbhagudi (Sanctum) is a recent construction. The original would have been a stone tower or made of brick and mortar. Apart from the tower, the temple has undergone alterations to suit the present times. From the article on this temple in Explore Telangana, I learnt, there's a beautifully sculpted Nandi inside.

On the temple's right side is this unusual Linga with four faces.. a Chaturmukha Linga. This reminds me of Chandramouleswara temple of Unkal, Hubli. Though not exactly same, these Shivalinga have four faces.

Within the temple premises, is another ancient structure which looks like the priest's residence. In the foreground is another beautiful Basavanna. The idol is damaged hence its placed at a side.

Two more views of the Basavanna. Its horns are smaller compared to other Nandi but the jewelry on it is no less.

Close to the Chatarmikha Linga are two idols of Anjaneya.. where there's a fort, there has to be Lord Hanuman.

Wish I had gone inside the temple :(

Close by an interesting structure.. a two-storey Mantapa. It looks like a restored item.. saying that because the columns in the ground floor are not same.

These two monuments i.e. the Swayambhu Devalayam and Two-storey mantapa are rarely visited by tourists.
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Jul 8, 2017

Ramlingeshwar ~ Ramappa temple

March 17, 2017
We were on our maiden tour of Warangal with plans of visiting Ramappa temple the following day. By 2 PM we had covered most of the main places in Warangal.. Warangal fort, Art collection, Ekasila Gutta, Thousand Pillar Temple and Bhadrakali temple. We brought Pulihara packets at Bhadrakali temple which would be our lunch accompanied by cucumbers we were carrying. Distance from Warangal to Ramappa temple being 70 odd kilometers, and we heard road was in good condition. So we decided to head towards Ramappa temple. We took a short break for lunch by roadside.. the Pulihara was little oily; wish we had carried spoons.

The road passes through a town called Mulugu. The terrain around Mulugu reminded of mining area. In fact, the road was flanked by strips of red colored dirt ..however, research showed no mines around here. On the way, we decided to camp overnight at Haritha Lodge at Ramappa Lake. The road indeed was good, we made good speed and reached Ramappa temple by 3-30 PM. There's a small settlement along the approach road to the temple.. small shops selling fancy items, snacks, soft-drinks and water.

The temple creates an imposing sight, we are looking at it's rear. Like most temples, this one is an east-facing temple. The temple is a protected monument hence a well maintained spacious garden. The temple has a wall around it, most parts of the wall seems original. The wall itself is double lined with dirt filled in between.. like a fort wall. I remember seeing such walls in temples built by Vijayanagar kings.

View from north-west. An inscription of this temple states it was built during the rule of Ganapati Deva in the year 1213 CE by Recherla Rudra, a general in Kakatiya army. It was built by a builder names Ramappa, hence the name and the time taken to complete it is said to be 40 years. The star-shaped platform is 6' high.. that should give you an idea of the temple size. The stone used here is similar to Chalukyan temples.. shades of pink to brown. The interesting fact here is the Shikhara is built of bricks. They are special bricks which float in water. I'd heard of the brick-making technique from an acquaintance.. it seems paddy husk was mixed in the mud which would burn off when the bricks were heat-treated in a kiln. So the bricks would have air pockets inside which makes them float in water. When you look at the temple, it creates a feeling that the Shikhara is light-weight, as though its sitting there delicately.

The northern entrance. Two damaged elephants greet visitors here. The lotus shaped base is 6' high and another 6' above is the temple floor level.. overall 12' above the ground level. There are two more entrances.. one each on eastern and southern sides. This temple is a Ekatachla meaning one sanctum. Ancinet builders have experimented with one, two or three doors. There must be scientific reasons for that.
For some time, lets divert our attention to the smaller temple besides the main temple. This is said to be the model before the main temple construction began. This is smaller in size and has one entrance only. Also, the base is not star-shaped but its almost rectangular. Probably the builders wanted to study other aspects of construction..

Front view of the trial temple.

The interior is quite simple. The central Mantapa is occupied by a black stone Nandi. Notice the mesh flanking the Garbhagudi entrance.

View from the trial temple entrance- a small mantapa with an inscription pillar and Nandi Mantapa bang opposite the main temple.

Like the temple, the Nandi Mantapa too built on a 6' platform with 12 corners.

A black granite Nandi sits peacefully on a pedestal. Check out its jewelry, amazing detailing isn't it. See the bell with chain links. One of the most beautifully decorated Nandi's I've seen.

Every aspect of the Nandi has taken care. Brilliant piece of work indeed.

Now lets see the main temple interior. As I climbed the temple stairs, the first thing that caught my attention was the floor. Can you see the slabs at odd angles. Surely this is not part of the temple design. I guessed it must have been caused by an earthquake. Research confirmed it.. an earthquake in 17th Century damaged the temple badly. It was restored recently, I believe. In fact, about 1,1 kilometers to the south, on the slop of a hill is another temple which has collapsed completely and in neglected state. The temple is view of Ramappa Cheruvu, a man made lake built during Kaktiya rule. Now back to Ramappa temple..


Looking towards the Garbhagudi. Rituals are performed here daily and a full time priest is present in the temple. The temple's roof is help up number of massive pillars. As you see the style is very much Chalukyan. The central Natya Mantapa has black granite columns, turned and mirror finished.

The South-North view. At least 8 floor slabs have dislodged from their original positions. Wonder if anyone ever witnessed the temple being damaged when the quake occurred. In spite of serious damages to the structure, the columns have survived well.

A close look at one of the central columns middle portion. Amazingly beautiful! These 800 year old columns are square at the base and remaining parts are octagonal or circular. Salute to the sculptors.

A collage of two columns (either sides) and a portion of the exterior wall (middle). Check out how complex the black stone columns are. It must have taken a year to make each of these pillars.

A look at the ceiling. Again another complex design. A square placed diagonally inside another square and a 24 spoke wheel at the center. The corners are adorned with floral art.

Closer look at the wheel. Wondering what's the significance of this design. Its not simple decoration.. surely its has some significance.

The roof overhang is supported by blocks decorated with sculptures of beautiful women. they all seem to be tall. Love their slender figures.

Another collage of eye catching sculptures on the temple walls. A line of royal elephants. One of the two beautiful maidens at the northern entrance. Lions, miniature columns and more elephants. Each of the elephants seem well fed and trained for battle fields.

Just outside the temple walls is a stock yard of semi-finished sculptures. Since we were short of time, we did not explore it... wondering what beautiful artworks we might have missed. Also, check out the temple wall design.

Ramappa Lake is about a kilometer from Ramappa temple. At the lake is a state owned tourism lodge.. Haritha Resort. Our plan was to camp there for the night but the place was booked fully. Later we found that it has just 7 double rooms. So, there will be a next time and we'll make sure we have the reservation.

About 10 to 12 kilometers from Ramappa temple is Ghanpur, another historic spot with a lake, fort and ruins of ancient temples. One can easily spend a day sigh seeing the wonders of our ancestors and Nature.
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Jul 1, 2017

Kakatiya sculptures at Warangal fort

Warangal, the capital of Kakatiya kingdom was the center of Kakatiyan art and architecture. Looking at the ruins and sculptural remains, one can imagine the glory during the heydays. It is said that one of the grandest temples was completely destroyed by the Muslim army. Today the remains are preserved at Warangal fort, an open air museum of Kakatiyan excellence. Of all that remains, the four massive arches called as Thorana almost intact and have become icons of Kakatiyan art. The word Thorana is common to Telugu and Kannada. Kakatiyan temple designs and art has evolved from Chakuyan architecture. Most Kakatiyan structures are much bigger and grander compared to Chalukyan.

March 17, 2017
Our tour of this museum started around 9-30, probably we were the first tourists of the day. We bought tickets for entry and cameras.. about ₹120 in all. These tickets are valid for Kush Mahal too which is less than 200 meters from here. Its a large enclosure, we decided to go anticlockwise. So we started with these stone water tanks probably for elephants and camels. May be the smaller ones are for horses.

Pushp inspecting a mesh sculpture. Check out the pairs of miniature pillars.. beautiful aren't they? The perfectly spaced spaced holes are stepped squares.. elegant indeed.

A pillar base  transitioning from with square to circle. In the background are a series of twin pillars with godly characters between them. The pillars are actually forming Thorana.. here are 3 of them. The middle one shows Natya Ganapati. The imaginary creatures over the pillars are similar to the ones seen in Chalukyan temples.

Here we have a variety of sculptures.. a miniature temple with a female god; water lily flanked by miniature pillars; two intersecting squares forming a octagram with a lotus in full bloom; an octagonal stepped dome - this seems like a ceiling piece. The miniature columns are so realistic.

Kakatiya and Hoysala dynasties were contemporaries and both excelled in temple art. We can see some similarities in terms of tastes and quality of sculptures. My observation is that Hoysala sculptors were better in carving human figures.. especially female forms attired in jewelry from head to toe. Kakatiyan used less of human figures, my observation so far.

Here we have a form of jewelry; a floral and geometrical combination; a stairway guide; and temple sanctum base. The stairway guide depicts two men on an elephant and a man under the beast's trunk.

Now we turn our attention to Kakatiyan icon, the massive Thorana. From the initial glance its seems like a monolith, can hardly make out where the joints are. This is an assembly of nine individual pieces- 4 columns, 1 central beam, 2 overhangs and 2 upper beams. Of course this entire structure stands  Amazing creation!! The overall height and width are approximately 30' x 30'. Wonder how the pieces were sculpted separately to precision and then assembled. The columns, as I understand are partly buried, so the overall height of each column is approximately 40'. Imagine the effort behind locating the right raw material and transporting them here. The design would have taken into consideration the effects of varying temperatures. 


In this enclosure there are four such Thorana, same size but each of them unique in design. These Thorana are an indication of Kaktiya's liking of large structures.. megalomania. In fact, if you observe the buildings of rich in Andhra/Telangana, its hows the liking for large structures is still in the blood.

Columns viewed from different angles. The edges are perfectly straight and the surfaces are absolutely flat. What kind of tools were used to achieve this precision. I believe its the power of sculptors' minds..

A closer look at the complex design of the upper portion. The beams are richly decorated in floral and geometrical patterns. The seven domes definitely has some significance.. like the Saptamatrika? The ducks on the top are simply adorable.

Somehow this little temple has survived the invasion. It's an east-facing temple, most likely dedicated to Lord Shiva. The structure is quite simple, devoid of any decoration but the design is typically Kakatiyan.. can be traced to Chalukyan. Its Mukha Mantapa and Sabha Mantapa are merged; a short vestibule- Antharala -connects the Sabha Mantapa to the Garbhagudi. The hall has a platform for people to sit on. A simple and neat structure. 

From the front, it looks like a cave beckoning you to enter the abode of the Lord. Check out the pillars and compare them with the miniature pillars.. perfect proportions, isn't it?

Amongst the giant Thoranas is a regular sized Thorana. Simple yet beautiful. thinking of Chalukyan temples, Thorana are not common there but not totally absent. I remember seeing Thorana at Ramlingeshwar group of temples at Aihole.

The earlier Throana we saw was on the west and the one here is southern. Here we have a platform around the columns base. Probably the western Thorana's base is covered in dirt. The designs are same but the detailing on the upper portions are unique.

Close by is a pillar with inscription on all sides. The script seems Telugu.. tried reading it, few letters are Kannada. Could manage few letters and a word or two. Always makes me think why ancient writings did not use spaces?
This part of the museum is a tightly packed collection of variety of items. One of the main attractions is the Nanda Mantapa with richly decorated columns. The Manatapa is badly damaged but its enough to give an idea how it might looked back then.

Like Chalukya, the Kakatiyas were worshipers of Lord Shiva and gave importance to Nandi. This baby faced bull is covered in jewelry. Kakatiyas preferred black colored stones.

Then we have a pair of elephants sans the trunks. Well fed, chubby little elephants :) In the background you can see a Thorana with a triangle head piece.. like a Roman arch.

Few more collages of lovely images.. a pair of lotus; a parade of royal elephants.

A stepped square hole - a matrix of such holes form a mesh. View of the northern Torana through the mesh hole. A handsome tusker. A palm with bunches of dates. I'm guessing they are dates..

Close by were few more smaller Thorana. One of the columns' faces had this interesting art. Looks simple but I'm sure it takes lot of effort to create this.

..this article will continue in the following post - Kakatiya sculptures at Warangal fort - Part II.
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